As with the order of raw materials, the order of mixing has
a huge influence. It is therefore that different stages of mixing are being
considered, depending on product and desired outcome.
This implies that all ingredients are directly put together
and mixed: in some case this requires additional ingredients to facilitate(!).
Fats are made soft/pliable, very frequently with sugar
and/or syrups on low to medium speeds. In cakes, cookies and biscuits a certain
amount of air incorporation is desired.
This is the process in which flour and liquids are being
brought together (for fermented products) with little to no mixing time and
allowed to hydrate, stimulate natural hydration and starting the process of (present)
Dissolving hard/ slow dissolving ingredients first, before
adding other ingredients in 2 or 3 steps/ stages.
Is a method where eggs and sugar are being aerated into a
light fluffy mass, after which flour or starch can be added. As for merengues,
sponge/ layer cakes.
In two mixing bowls is mixed. In the first one flour (and
other dry components) with fats are creamed into a fluffy mass and in the
second, eggs with sugar and other sugar products are whipped to a semi-firm
foam. The sugar-egg mixture is then added to the fluffy mass and thoroughly
mixed until the right batter density. This is particularly used in Batters.
in the first phase all the sugar and sugar products are
mixed with half the liquids (water, eggs, milk, etc.) then the fats and flour
(and other dry components) are added and mixed on medium to high speeds. As a
last step the remaining liquids are added on a low speed. This is particularly
used in semi-liquid doughs and batters.
Sugar and sugar products are creamed with fat, then the
remaining other liquids (except eggs) are added in several small steps (the product
looks like buttercream) then adding flour and in the last step adding the eggs
and the batter is mixed until the batter density has been reached.
This is a method in between Hydration/Autolyse
and consists of creating a fluffy/spongy mass, semi liquid, which is allowed to
ferment. After this its final development with remaining dry matter(e.g.
Flour and/ or salt) is being added to knead the dough to the
desired level of development (of gluten/ proteins).
Beat the eggs, sugar and other sugar products (like glucose
syrups, glycerol, lemon-paste) and heat until 37°C. Simultaneously melt the
fats till boiling point. After the egg-mixture is aerated add the flour (and
other dry components) on slow speeds and after that the fats are added on slow
speed and mixed until a smooth batter is present.
o 2 Stage
This implies that the mixing process is divided in 2 parts.
o 3 Stage
This implies that the mixing process is divided in 3 parts
As noticed above there is variation on particular details,
but generally speaking we notice that mixing is done between 1-4 different
steps. The mixing time varies from probably less than 2 minutes for a Soda
cracker sponge, up to 30 minutes or more for hard-sweet biscuit dough mixed in
a spindle mixer. The longer the dough mixes the warmer it will be. In a larger
mixer this friction becomes less intensive and less heat is developed.
Variations in the dough temperature can cause differences in the quality of the
The more liquid a formulation or recipe is, we have
different kinds of tools to choose from, when looking at a planetary mixer:
- Dough hook (or spiral)
This is used for more solid type of doughs: breads, crackers, cookies and
Intended for light masses (e.g. whip cream, cream Chantilly, egg whites, etc).
A lot of air is being put in, but slightly irregular.
This is for soft masses, could be for certain type of cookies (such as a
shortbread) or cakes, with a medium density of the batter or dough. Air intake
is more regular and controlled, takes however longer time than with a whisk;
this could propose a risk of overdevelopment of proteins.
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