Biscuits can be made in different
processes, one is a system where a rotary moulder is being used and the dough
is quite crumbly… without the pressure of the rollers a product can’t be
formed. The other process is a process where sheeting comes in: the dough can
be rolled into a thin layer and then cut into a desired shape. So that means we
have different dough types that can result in biscuits and in several cases the
ratios or proportions of ingredients can even be similar, but the process
creates a distinct difference.
Typically we can say that biscuits are made
from either short dough or developed dough. Short dough is dough where the
structure of the dough is short: if you take a small piece of dough and try to
stretch it will break almost immediately. Depending on the amount of fat and
sugar compared to the amount of flour and starches the dough can be more or
less crumbly and more or less pliable. They all have in common that the amount
of liquid (water, eggs and milk) is low and mostly a ‘softer’ flour is being
used. A short dough is generically intended for rotary moulding, but can be
sheeted (in some case a bit more liquids are being used then). A developed
dough has basically an opposite structure: the small piece of dough will
stretch, but will not break easily. This is due to the fact that some gluten
formation has been stimulated and result in dough that has some some stretching
and elasticity properties as you would expect in e.g. bread doughs. These
doughs are suitable for sheeting and laminating; fat and sugar content tends to
be lower than in rotary moulding and liquids are higher.
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