Heat transfer

31 January 2023
Baking transformations Heat transfer | Bakery Academy

Heat transfers

On average, close to 50% of the total energy is consumed in the first 25-35% of the baking process. Products are entering the oven between 10-35°C and are required to heat up until about 95-105°C internal and around 150-180°C on the outside (or crust), and some even higher.  Probably also close to 50% of the baking process (in time) is being used to make sure that sufficient moisture is evaporated so fixation of structure and colouration can take place. These two conditions are largely depending on the means that the heat is being transferred to the products, thus the oven design. It is also quite common that the temperature indications are not the same as the temperature of the baking chamber, but that of the heat source. Every oven is different, so it is good to understand that indicators might vary between ovens, although achieving nearly similar results.

During every baking process, all methods of heat transfer are being present, there is however always one more dominant that the other:

  •     Conduction: baking support for the product by baking tray or oven band
  •     Convection: natural or forced movement of the air
  •     Radiation: presence of heating elements and elements that are hot (e.g. sides of the oven)

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