Acrylamide and ingredient choices
Acrylamide and ingredient choices. Theoretically it should be possible to select for certain products where no or low fermentation times are being used. To select species with lower Aspargine as a precursor for creating Acrylamide. Flours with low amylase activity (therefore a high falling number or Hagberg number) are reported to assist in lowering the formation of Acrylamide. In rotary moulded biscuits and shortbread cookies a high falling number is not important for obtaining the right texture. It might result in slightly less colour, but this can be compensated (or even be acceptable by the consumers).
The idea of having less Aspargine (Asn) available as amino acid, can be done by diluting wheat for example by replacing it. By a source with less Asn or proteins at all: therefore using starch, rice, or corn (rye and oats have higher amount of Asn compared to wheat)in order to dilute the proteins. Research, has shown that when other Amino Acids are introduced, a reduction of Acrylamide can happen. Glycine and Cysteine are reported to be the most effective ones, in the formulation. Or as a spray on top of the product, just before baking. If possible one could sometimes consider to use a very low dosage of cysteine in the dough: 0.005% was reported to give up to 50% Acrylamide reduction.
The use of a calciumbased salt (such as calciumchloride or calcium based leavening agents) in your bakery formulations seems promising as well. However one must be careful with the addition in relation to flavour deviations. The most effective result is reported to be reducing the sugar reducted content in combination with adding a calcium carbonate (about 1% of total formulation).
Ammonium Bicarbonate results in many cases in an increase of Acrylamide. It is therefore recommended to replace Ammonium Bicarbonate by a combination of Sodium Bicarbonate and a fast reacting leavening salt. Such as MonoCalciumPhosphate or SAPP40. The products will change slightly due to this. If it however changes the product too much, it can be argueable to use calcium salts. Potentially in combination with the enzyme Asparginase.
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