In lamination one the key elements is to control, whilst obtaining a good and strong dough. By extending the dough and thus reducing the thickness. Part of these lamination steps is that before the first folding, and then reducing of the dough is been done a proper fat (preferably butter due to the taste and…

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Checked biscuits have small cracks or hairlines in them, sometimes hardly visible. Problem appears mostly in short period after packaging, when opening a package and/or touching the product the biscuits will break; in developing products it will occur during cooling stage as well. Mainly with hard sweet biscuits and enzyme modified crackers and possible with…

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Collapsing is a very common issue in cakes, in particular in the more traditional formulations: without stabilisers, emulsifiers, etc. In those cases opening the oven too soon, would have the steam built up in the oven and the cake release too quick, which allowed the top of the cake cool down and thus fall in…

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The spread in cookies and biscuits can be caused by numerous ingredients and processing steps. Probably most baking people will know that the amount and type of fat used in the formulation of the cookies plays an important role: the softer (or more liquid/ easier melting) fat more spread can take place and in combination…

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Vegan is hot and happening. In several products egg whites or egg yolks can be easily replaced by other animal based products, such as certain milk proteins. From a sustainability point of view more and more demand comes for completely plant based products. This means however that the unique functionalities in eggs are lost, as…

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Creams come in several formulations, but roughly we can divide them with either fat or water as dominant source when we start. If we can incorporate air into the cream we can create air to become the dominant source at the final product. Water, the type of fat (or oil) determine what other ingredients to…

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The colour of a product is very often its signature. Some products will receive some decorations, where other products require that the crust will give its attractive appearance. The colour is a result of several factors in the process of creating a product: It’s formulation regarding the number of: sugars proteins starch fat and type…

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Fats and oils consist of a glycerol molecule that can bind 3 different fatty acids. The type of fatty acid makes that we would classify them as saturated, unsaturated or even poly-unsaturated. Generally speaking we can say that saturated fatty acids have the tendency to be more solid at room temperature, where unsaturated fatty acids…

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Many of the products we consume fresh have a short period of fitness for consumption. This can be due to the fact that we need to eat products warm or cold, it can also be due to chemical changes that might happen  over time or due to the fact that moulds or bacteria have started…

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